Firmian's Edict Of Expulsions
THE SALZBURG EXILES
We Leopold, by the Grace of God, Archbishop of Salzburg, Legate of the Holy See Apostolical, Primate of Germany.
To all our Vice Deans, Bailiffs, Provosts, Governors, their Substitutes, Judges, and to all our Officers and Subjects,
Greeting: Know ye, that having heard, contrary to all Expectation, that a great Part of our Subjects living in the Mountains
had rebelled against us, their lawful Prince, under Pretence of Persecution in Matters of Religion, and other Oppressions
on the part of our officers, and had of their own Motion stirred up a Sedition, so much the more Criminal, because it is
directly contrary to the natural Laws and Constitutions of the Empire; and being desirous, in order to prevent the
Consequences of so great a Misfortune, to make use of our Paternal Clemency, before we inflict upon them the
Punishment they have so justly deserved, by redressing their Grievances in a proper Manner, according to Justice; we did
without Loss of Time, upon the 9th of July last, appoint Commissioners, and ordered them to repair to the Mountains
forthwith, to inquire into the Grievances of our Subjects, and give us an exact Account of the same.

The Commissioners we sent thither were not wanting in the Discharge of their Duty: they went from District to District;
they took an Account of the respective Grievances, both Civil and Religious; and after they had inquired into them, they
eased some, and entirely redressed others, to the Satisfaction of the Mutineers; who, especially such as had declared to
the Commissioners, that they made Profession of the Evangelical Religion, or the Confession of Augsburg, unanimously
and voluntarily declared and promised, that they would inviolably preserve the Fidelity which was due to us as their Lord
and Prince; that they would pay all the Obedience and respect due to the Spiritual and Temporal Regencies; that they
would avoid all unlawful Assemblies; that they would raise no Commotions; that they would not molest the Catholicks
with Threats, with Preaching in Publick, or otherwise; and that they would not undertake any thing that was contrary to
the Oath and Duty of faithful Subjects, or that might disturb the publick Safety and Tranquillity: In return for which, the
Commissioners promised them, with our Approbation, and until we should publish our Resolution upon that Subject,
agreeably to the Constitutions of the Empire, that every one of them might exercise his Religion in secret at his own
House, provided they forbore Preaching and Assembling in an unlawful Manner.

Nevertheless, we have since heard, to our Sorrow, that the Rebels, immediately after the Departure of the
Commissioners, without any regard to their own Promises, or to the wholesome Admonition that was given to them,
began again to assemble themselves in a tumultuous manner in several Places, both publickly and privately, to make
seditious Sermons to the People assembled, to threaten to exterminate the Catholicks with Fire and Sword, to abuse the
Spiritual and Temporal Regencies, yea, even our own Person, both in Word and Deed, and, in short, to commit several
other Actions worthy of the most severe Punishments. WHEREUPON, and in order to convince our rebellious and
disloyal Subjects, more and more of our sincere Intentions, which mean nothing but our Preservation, we ordered our said
Commissioners to exhort once more our respective Jurisdictions situate in the Mountains, by way of Circular Letters,
dated the 30th of July, not to stop the Course of our Paternal Love, nor interrupt, by criminal Enterprises, Violences, and
tumultuous Assemblies, our Designs, which tend only to the Publick Welfare, but to keep themselves quiet at Home, and
wait with Peace and Unity the Decision of their Grievances, both Civil and Religious; with Assurances, that we would
cause them to be examined with the utmost Care; and that we would redress the same in such a manner as we shall be
able to answer before God and the World.

To put these Assurances in Execution, we appointed Deputies, the 6th of August, from Members of the Consistory, of the
Aulick Counsel, and the Chamber, and ordered them to meet immediately, to examine, with all possible Care, the
Grievances that should be communicated, and to consider how they might be entirely terminated, or at least made easier.
But our Subjects, instead of making suitable Returns for our paternal Care, turned it into Ridicule, and casting off the
Respect and Fidelity which they owe to us, they began openly and wantonly to abuse our Clemency, by committing all
sorts of Disorders; and having found Means to gain over some of our Subjects by Promises, and others by Artifice, they
summoned a general Conference at Schwartzach, upon the 5th of August, and called it the Great Council: In this
Conference, Proposals were made the most prejudicial to us, to the Archbishoprick and the Country: Here they
deliberated, and took Resolutions, which they engaged to execute by a solemn Oath, which they took kneeling, and with
Hands lifted up: They afterwards repeated their tumultuous Assemblies and Deliberations, both publickly and privately;
they continued to make seditious Sermons, to threaten more than ever, to exterminate the faithful Subjects with Fire and
Sword, and to shew their Contempt even of our Person by injurious Discourses.

THESE EXCESSES, and others so contrary to the Laws of God and Nature, gave us the greater Concern, because we
were in hopes our Rebellious Subjects, being convinced of our Paternal Love, and in our favourable Dispositions, would
no longer have abused our Patience. We might with a good Grace enough, have exerted our Power and Authority against
them, by punishing them As Rebellious Subjects; but our Love and Clemency having again prevailed over us, we
contented our self with publishing and affixing up, in all the Places of the Mountains, dissuasive Letters, dated the 30th of
August; wherein we exhorted the Mutineers that were risen against us and their Country, to render us the Obedience and
Submission that is due to us, and to preserve inviolably the Fidelity they had sworn to us; forbidding them to continue the
aforesaid Enterprises, Assemblies, Preachings, Threats, Injuries, or other the like Things, upon Pain of forfeiting their
Estates, and even their Lives, to all and every one that should be found to act contrary thereto. And the better to secure
the publick Tranquillity, we did moreover forbid them to assemble themselves, either in private or in By-places, to the
Number of more than three; or to undertake any thing whatsoever, that could prejudice our Power or Authority, occasion
the Spiritual or Temporal Regencies to be abused or maltreated, or disturb the publick Tranquillity.

But as the Mutineers, far from giving Attention thereto, have had the Boldness to go on with their Disorders as before,
despised those dissuasive Letters, and told the Officers of Justice and other Persons to their Faces, that we had nothing to
do to command them; this shews, that the Redress of Civil or Religious Grievances, of which they complained in the
Beginning of their Mutiny, was not the Point they aimed at; but that they wanted to introduce a boundless Liberty, to erect
a new State among themselves, and to make themselves an independent People. In short, some of them, continuing their
abominable Excesses, and their Assemblies so often forbid, did of their own Authority forbid the frequenting of our
Churches; they went from House to House to give notice of their seditious Preachments, to begin on a certain Signal,
either by Beat of Drum, or the firing of some Muskets: So that we were at last obliged, tho' against our Will, to make use
of the Power which God has put into our Hands; and on the 28th of September we caused the principal Author of the
Sedition to be seized and imprisoned, not upon Account of Religion, but for disturbing the publick Tranquillity, and for
rising against us, his lawful Lord and Prince.

The next Morning, several of his Adherents had the Boldness to get together and endeavour to set him at Liberty, and to
attack our faithful subjects, but tho' they durst not execute their Enterprise, seeing the good Dispositions that were made
to give them a warm Reception; they nevertheless gave fresh Proofs of their seditious Spirits, by summoning new
Assemblies in several Places, repeating their injurious and menacing Discourses against our Person, and disobeying our
command, and those of our Officers: They have set up a new Head, to whom they have promised Fidelity, and have not
been unmindful of demanding Succours of the Evangelical Protestants, under Pretence of being persecuted for the sake of
Religion; and falsely alleging, that it was our Intent to refuse them the Right of going away, and by such and other false
Reports, they have endeavoured not only to stir up a Sedition in the neighbouring Countries, but also to kindle the Flames
of a Religious War throughout the Roman Empire .

As our Honour, our Dignity, and our Authority, in the Quality of an Archbishop and Sovereign Prince, will not permit us
to endure any longer, that the said Disturbers of the publick Peace and Safety of all the Archbishoprick, should persist in
their Spirit of Rebellion and Disobedience, of which they are fully convicted, as appears by a great number of Reports,
Memorials, and Certificates worthy of Credit, and attested upon Oath: As, on the other hand, we are not ignorant of the
general Ordinances, which have been issued from time to time by our Predecessors, touching the Conduct which the
Spiritual and Temporal Regencies were to observe, agreeably to the Constitutions of the Empire, with regard to Subjects
suspected in Matters of Religion, and particularly in relation to the Right of going away: And as we should be inexcusable,
it as an Ecclesiastical Prince, we should tolerate the Exercise of a Religion in our Archbishoprick, contrary to the Roman
Catholick Religion; which, by the Grace of God, is of more than 1200 Years standing; we have the less Reason to refuse
the Right of going away, because we have always been inclined, as we are still, to give our Consent to it, on purpose to
avoid giving Offence to our said Subjects, and to those of the bordering Provinces of the Emperor and Bavaria.

It will not be found that ever we refused that Liberty of Departure; but it appears on the contrary, by divers publick Acts,
agreeable to the Constitutions of the Empire, that we have always granted it without any Limitation: So that in order to
restore a settled Tranquillity in our Archbishoprick, and to prevent yet greater Troubles, there now remains no other
Method to be taken, than to extirpate entirely to the Root those turbulent and seditious Fellows, who in Times past have
so often disturbed this Archbishoprick; and that with the greater Reason, because nothing is to be expected in this
Archbishoprick but fresh Troubles; and that not withstanding the wholesome Advice given them by the Pastor,
notwithstanding all the Methods we have tried, in Performance of our Pastoral duty, to prevail with them to desist from
their Criminal Enterprises, and to bring them back into the Way of the Faithful, they will, in spite of all these Admonitions
and Exhortations persist in their Rebellion and Obstinacy: And therefore we thought it was high time to publish proper
Ordinances upon that Subject. We communicate this our present Command to all our Subjects, Citizens and Inhabitants,
particularly to those who have declared themselves to be of the Reformed, or of the Confession of Augsburg, and persist
in the Profession thereof, either in publick or in private: And after the most serious Consideration, by virtue of our Power,
as immediate Prince of the Empire, and of the Right which belongs to them, as such to reform Religion, and to command
their Subjects. who profess another, to depart from their Territories, we ordain,

1. THAT all those who profess either of the Religions above mentioned, and tolerated in the Empire, and who upon
Occasion of the last Rising have declared themselves to be such, whether in publick or in private, shall depart this
Archbishoprick, and Countries thereunto belonging, with all their Effects; never to enter it more, upon pain of Confiscation
of their Effects, or even of Death, according to the Exigency of the Case.
2. SUCH of the Inhabitants of this Archbishoprick, as have no Settlement, or those who are not Burghers, the Workmen,
Valets, or Domesticks of both Sexes, who have attained the Age of twelve Years, and profess one of the said two
Religions, and have declared themselves so to be in manner aforesaid, shall depart with all their Effects in 8 Days, to be
computed from the Day of the Publication of these Presents; and in case they do not readily obey, they shall be punished
in manner aforesaid, without any Hopes of Pardon.
3. WHEREFORE, all those, let them be what they will, that work in the Salt Mines, or such other Works; or who, either
in the Mountains, or in the Plains, are in our Service, or employed by us. by the Members of our Chamber, or by other
Officers of our Country, are from this time forward, and in general discharg'd from their Service and Work; they shall
have no Salary from the Day of the Date of these Presents, nor what is called Provision or Benefice-Money; but they shall
be obliged to depart the Country within the limited Time, and under the Penalties above mentioned.
4. AND as it has been customary, not to admit any Person to the Burghership or Freedom of the Towns or Boroughs of
this Archbishoprick, till he had proved that he and all his Family professed the Catholick Religion, and produced
Certificates on the part of the Regencies established for that purpose; we will and ordain, that all and every Burgher or
Artisan, making Profession of one of the said Religions, and who declared themselves so to be during the present Rising
and Rebellion, have from this time forward entirely forfeited, throughout the Archbishoprick, their Right of Burghership
and Freedom; and that, like the others, they depart this Archbishoprick, with some difference, however, in regard to the
time, with respect to the other Inhabitants that are not Burghers.
5. AS for those Peasants who have Settlements, and the other Inhabitants of this Archbishoprick of both Sexes, who have
Houses or Land, and have declared themselves, either in private or publick, to be of one of the said two Religions,
(Lutherans or Calvinists) which they had professed before; tho' they ought not to be ignorant, that according to the
Constitutions of the Empire, and by virtue of the general Mandates from time to time issued by our Predecessors, they
were enjoined to embrace the Roman Catholick Religion, as being the only one tolerated in this Archbishoprick, and
which the Prince God has set over them professes; and that within a limited Time, to be computed from the Day of their
Change of Religion; or to dispose of their Estates, and then to quit our Archbishoprick; and tho' on the other hand they
have forfeited all Right of Departure, and other Privileges stipulated by the Treaty of Westphalia, of which they have
rendered themselves unworthy, by stirring up the last Insurrection, disturbing the Publick Tranquillity, and acting directly
contrary to the said Treaty of Westphalia, the Constitutions of the Empire, and our Ordinances and Dissuasive Letters:
nevertheless, out of our Clemency, provided that in the mean time they keep themselves quiet, agreeably to our Dissuasive
Letters, we grant a Month's Time to those who are possessed of 150 Florins or under, two Months to such as are worth
from 150 to 500 Florins, to sell their Effects in the best manner they can in that Time, and then to quit the Country, upon
the Penalties above mentioned; and we moreover permit them to keep a Man-Servant and a Maid-Servant, and no more,
of their Religion, to do their Business during that Time.
6. AS all that is above, regards only such as make Profession of one of the two Religions aforesaid, tolerated in the
Empire, and who have declared themselves to be such, we reserve to our selves the Punishment to be inflicted upon the
Mutineers and Disturbers of the Publick Peace, and upon such as profess a Heresy which was never tolerated in the
Empire. And as for those who joined the Rebels and Disturbers, only for the Sake of their Religion, and are not in other
respects chargeable with Sedition or Rebellion, we exempt them from the Punishment that they may have deserved,
provided they leave the Archbishoprick, as is above said; and we grant them a general Pardon by these Presents.
7. AS it may be presumed, that after this Ordinance, several of the Seditious, who by this Rebellion had more in view the
good things of this Life, than the Salvation of their immortal Souls, and have made Application to those of the Evangelical
Religion; and others, who till the Time of the Sedition, concealed, after a Hypocritical manner, and under a Catholick
outside, the Religion they professed in the Heart, will likewise return to it, in order to take the first Opportunity to create
new Disturbances in the Country: And as these sort of People are by no means to be rely'd upon, after so many Examples
of Sedition which those Rebels to God and their Country have from time to time excited in our Archbishoprick; We do by
these Presents will and ordain, that those, who, after the Admonition they received from the Commissioners we sent into
the Mountains last July, to consider well an Affair of so great Importance, and their everlasting Salvation were so nearly
concerned, before they came to a Resolution, did nevertheless declare to the said Commissioners, that they would
embrace another Religion, which for the most part they know nothing of, preferably to the Roman-Catholick Religion, if
they have not given Proofs of the Repentance within a Fortnight afterwards, by entering themselves again as Catholicks
before the Regency; that in like manner those, who in the Memorials drawn up by our rebellious Subjects, and
communicated to us by Order of his Imperial Majesty, are denominated and entered as Evangelical, and of the
Confession of Augsburg, shall not be included in this our Ordinance, nor enjoy the Benefit thereof, even tho' they should
pretend that they were entered wrong, and without their Knowledge or Content, unless they make due Proof of such false
Entry, and of their good Behavior.
8. AS for those who have not hitherto declared themselves, either in publick or in private, as making Profession of another
Religion, but have nevertheless render'd themselves suspicious, by their Conduct and Manner of Living; as we can fix
upon nothing certain with regard to them, tho' we are very desirous to root out that noxious Weed, because till this is
done, we can never expect to see a lasting Tranquillity in our Archbishoprick; we will and ordain, that all the general
Mandates formerly published upon the Subject of Religion, be hereby renewed; and that when the spiritual and temporal
Regencies visit their respective Jurisdictions, they shall examine such Subjects as they suspect on Account of Religion, or
at whose Houses they shall find prohibited Books, and shall ask them civilly, without fining or inflicting any other
Punishment upon them. whether they be Catholicks, and will persevere in that Religion, or whether they will declare
themselves to be of the Lutheran or reformed Religion. As for those in the first Circumstance, the Regencies shall give
them the necessary Instructions with regard to the Conduct they are to observe for the fiuture; and they shall take away
the prohibited Books which may be found at their Houses, and forbid them to have any more such, at their Peril. As for
the others, they shall not be constrained in their Liberty of Conscience; but Notice shall be given them, that agreeably to
the Laws of the Empire and their Country, they shall sell their Estates and Effects in the best manner they can, within a
limited Term, and then leave the Country, having first paid their Taxes, as is usual in all Places. If it should happen, that
any one, who pretends to be a Catholick, but is really of another Religion, has prohibited Books in his House, or is a
Dealer in them, or is present with others in unlawful Assemblies, such Transgressors shall be condemned to perpetual
Banishment, and even, if the Case requires it, shall suffer Death, and forfeit his Estate.
9. WE have already declared, that it is not our Intention, that those who profess one of the said two Religions tolerated in
the Empire, and are not in other respects chargeable with Sedition, Rebellion, or Heresy, should be looked upon by us
with an Eye of Indignation, as contrary to the Constitutions of the Empire; but we are desirous to procure them, to the
best of our Power, the Liberty of Departure above specified. Wherefore we enjoin all our Regencies, and command them
by these Presents, that all necessary Assistance be given to such as shall go out of the Country within the Time above
allowed them; Certificates to be granted them, if they desire it, of their Birth, Family, Profession, and honest Behaviour.
We forbid any other Tax to be imposed upon, or required of them, than that which is in our Archbishoprick; and it is our
Pleasure, that after they have entered themselves in a judicial Manner, they be conducted from District to District, till they
be out of the Country.
10. WE enjoin all such of our Subjects, as are included in this our Ordinance, and are obliged to leave the Country in the
manner above mentioned, upon pain of suffering without Mercy, the Penalties mentioned in the beginning of our said
Ordinance, to appear before the Regencies of their respective Places, before the Expiration of the Terms allowed them to
pay the usual Tax honestly; and to demand a safe Conduct for their Departure out of the Country.
11. ALL the Regencies appointed by us, shall take the utmost Care, that this our Ordinance, and every Clause or Article
thereof, be strictly put in Execution: And after the respective Terms, which we have graciously granted to those who are
obliged to go away, shall be expired, they shall make enquiry after such as have not obeyed our Commands: they shall
commit them to Prison and proceed against them, in case of Need, by Military Force, without suffering themselves to be
led away from their Duty by Presents, or any other Motives of Friendship or Enmity, Love or Hatred; but shall behave
themselves in that Affair without respect of Persons, and in such wise as they can always answer to God and us, if they
have not a mind to be deprived of their Places, and incur our Displeasure, and to be severely punished.

FINALLY, that none may plead Ignorance, and to the end that this our Ordinance and Licence of Departure may be the
more strictly and diligently executed and observed; it is our Pleasure that it be Printed, Published in the usual Places,
publickly read, and affixed: For such is our Will and Intention. In witness whereof, we have signed it with our own Hand,
and have sealed it with the Seal of our Arms. Done in our Residence of Saltzburg, the 31st of October, 1731.
Signed, LEOPOLD.  L.S. By Order of his Highness, H.CHRISTANI, Chancellor of the Court