Frankfurt in the 14th and 15th and 16th and 17th century... and in 1944
Frankfurt was further attacked on January 28, 1944 and November 26 and December 20,1943. Four
weeks later, on January 29, 1944, more than 800 American bombers dropped 5000 high-explosives
bomb and 10,000 incendiaries on the entire city. All of these attacks killed people in the high
hundreds. On February 8, 1944, 88 American bombers struck, but mostly industrial areas and killed
only a few hundred. On March 18, she was hit again. But the attack on March 22 by 800 British
bombers destroyed the old city forever in 9,000 separate fires, and by now the human suffering was
beyond comprehension. 1,300 high explosive bombs up to 8,000 pounds, 600,000 incendiary bombs
and 50,000 incendiary bombs rained death and destruction upon Frankfurt from the medieval city
center out. By now, thousands of civilians were dead and 150,000 shelterless. Then, as if that were
not enough for the old city which was now just a heap of rubble filled with the stench of rotting
bodies, 175 American bombers dropped bombs on the city center to polish it off. The only targets
left were the maimed, injured, orphaned, deranged, or elderly people and rescue workers.
Although Frankfurt had been bombed repeatedly in World War Two, 54 times prior to July 25, 1942,
the British had not yet aimed at civilian targets. The daylight raid on this day was the first direct
civilian attack that took place on Frankfurt. Two weeks later she was bombarded again by 226
bombers. In January of 1943, the British and Americans decided to unite their air forces, and on
April 11, the savage attacks began again, followed by another large scale attack on October 4, 1943
when 650 aerial mines, 217,000 incendiary bombs and 16,000 liquid incendiary bombs were dropped
by 300 British airplanes.
In 1372, Frankfurt was made a free imperial city. After Frankfurt accepted the Reformation in 1530,
it hosted the coronation ceremonies for various emperors from 1562-1792. In the wars of the 17th
and 18th centuries, Frankfurt was destructively occupied by foreign forces many times. Frankfurt
was part of the ecclesiastic principality of Regensburg and Aschaffenburg created by Napoleon I for
Karl Theodor von Dalberg after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and then
converted in 1810 into the grand duchy of Frankfurt. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna restored
Frankfurt to free city status and made it the seat of the diet of the German Federation. The first
German national assembly was the Frankfurt Parliament which met there in 1848-49. Frankfurt was
then annexed by Prussia. The Treaty of Frankfurt, which ended the Franco-Prussian War, was
signed there in 1871. It was probably the most important medieval city in Germany and to some, the
most beautiful. It was filled with timeless treasures of European culture and history.