|Like his father, Leonhard Schaitberger was a sweepmaster. Born in Zirndorf in 1712, the same year
as Friedrich the Great and the Wild Margrave, Leonhard was active in Erlangen where he took over
some of his father's territories and added new ones. He married three times and sired a total of 18
children. He lived long enough to hear of the American Revolution, and died in 1778 after an active
life. His sons would all become sweep masters in Erlangen, Neustadt-Aisch and Cadolzburg.
Tobias Gabriel, born in 1749, was Leonhard's first born son from his second marriage to Barbara
Schoors. Tobias Gabriel continued the family tradition as a master sweep, but spelled his pen name
Scheitberger. At age 36, he married 44 year old Luise Margarethe Kasparitz Reinlein in a civil
marriage in Erlangen. She was the widow of Erlangen Postmaster Johann Reinlein and by this
former marriage was the grandmother of Max Stirner, anarchist/writer/philosopher.
In the 18th century, fire fighting still lay exclusively in the hands of the citizen fire-brigades, who at
the most had two exercises a year. Fire stations as we know them today were not present. It would
be a while before adequate pumps and flexible hoses were created. Since masks had not been
invented yet, firemen wore thick beards to breathe through. Of course, chimney sweeps had an
intimate familiarity with fire and worked hand in hand with the fire brigades. It was not uncommon
for giant conflagrations to swallow whole towns and even large cities.
Tobias Gabriel Schaitberger wrote the book "Anweisung zur Verhütung der Feuersgefahren und
wirksamsten Löschmittel gegen Feuersbrünste. Zu Verbreitung gemeinnüziger Vorschläge und
Anstalten" ( "Instruction for preventing the Fire Dangers and most effective Fire Extinguishing
Agents against Conflagrations" ) in 1791 (below). In 1795, following a horrible fire which nearly
destroyed Copenhagen, the book was translated into Danish and reprinted several times.
While some Schaitbergers were still residing at the family compound in Ansbach, Tobias was a
sweep master in Cadolzburg until his death in 1825. His widow died three years later.
Johann Andreas Tobias Schaitberger had been born to Tobias Gabriel and his aging wife in 1786 in
the last years of the old Margraveship of Ansbach under whose rule the family had lived and worked
for so long. They had relocated to the town of Cadolzburg around the time of Napoleon.
Johann Andreas followed in his father's footstep, becoming a sweep master and farm owner in
Cadolzburg. At 34 year old, he married 20 year old local girl Margaretha Kirchner when they finally
met the strict financial marriage requirements of Bavaria. They already had a two year old daughter
together and were expecting another child.
The couple would have at least 10 more living children. Three of their sons would be sweeps and
at least one of their daughters would have a child with a sweep. Andreas lived until 1853, and his
young, adoring wife Margaretha survived until 1874.
|Cadolzburg is today in the District of Fuerth, Mittelfranken, Bavaria. It grew up in the shadow of
ancient Schloss Kadolzburg, which from 1157 was the retreat for the Counts of Nürnberg and seat
of the ruling Hohenzollerns. Friedrich 1, Elector of Brandenburg, died here in 1440. The old
Margrave's Church, rebuilt in 1792 by the famed Johann David Steingruber, son of Salzburg exiles,
bears a cartouche with the monogram CWF for Carl Wilhelm Friedrich, the "Wild Margrave" of
Ansbach, 1712-1757. Carvings in the church date from 1470, and a crucifix from 1500.
In 1792, the principality of Ansbach was sold to Prussia by debt-ridden Margrave Karl Alexander,
who was already unpopular for having sold the local soldiers to England to be used as mercenaries
in the war with America. On December 15, 1805, in the first Treaty of Schönbrunn, Prussia in turn
ceded Ansbach to France in exchange for the Electorate of Hanover. Since Bavaria had joined
Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine in 1799, he rewarded Bavaria by elevating it to a Kingdom
when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and Bavaria acquired Ansbach in exchange for
the Duchy of Berg. Ansbach was thereby incorporated into the Catholic Kingdom of Bavaria, much
to the enduring chagrin and resentment of Protestants in some parts of Frankonia. Likewise, after
the Prussian defeat at Jena on October 14, 1806, the Principality of Bayreuth was ceded to the
French in the Treaty of Tilsit, and then in turn also given to Bavaria in 1810.
|The Sweep Dynasty Continues
|Announcement of Baptism (Meister Leonhard Schaitberger, Hochfürstlich Onolzbachischer Hof, Ansbach, CaminFeger
und Barbar Schoors, Taufen - Kirchenbuch Erlangen-Neustadt 1750, S. 206
1) Tobias Gabriel - * 14. März 1750 (getauft, Eintragung im Kirchenbuch von 1750, Se. 206, Erlangen-Neustadt)
Vater Leonhard Schaitbergers Hochfürstlich privilegirten Caminfegers und Barbara uxoris Söhnlein geb. den 12ten
Nachmittags zwischen 2 und 3 Uhr. Gevatter war Herr Tobias Gabriel Feigel, Burger und Gastwirth zun 3 Königen dahier.
|Evangelische Markgrafenkirche in Kadolzburg
|Friedrich I, born in 1372 at Cadolzburg, was the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule the Margraviate of
Brandenburg and in that capacity was known as Friedrich I. He is also known as Friedrich VI, Burgrave of Nürnberg.
He entered into the military service of Austria early and fought on the side of King Sigismund of Hungary, returned and
divided his inheritance with his brother Johann, who received Bayreuth while Friedrich kept Ansbach. Constant feuding,
notably with the nobility of Brandenburg, occupied his life until he withdrew to his castle at Cadolzburg in 1425.
An American bomb in World War Two burned the old Cadolzburg castle down to the walls.
The "Cadolzburger Altar" was created in Nürnberg around 1420/25 and donated as an altar for the church at
Cadolzburg by Friedrich I., above, and his wife Elisabeth Wittelsbach. Two of its wings are now lost.
The Church bears a cartouche with the monogram CWF for Carl Wilhelm Friedrich,
the "Wild Margrave" of Ansbach, 1712-1757
|Friedrich I. Cadolzburger Alter. Cartouche
|About Tobias Gabriel's Publisher: The Sad Story of Johann Jakob Palm
|In the spring of 1806, while working at the book selling firm of Stein, Mr. Johann Jakob Palm of
Erlangen received a package of tightly wrapped books in a private transaction between customers,
the contents of which were completely unknown to him. The package included a small, anonymous
pamphlet entitled "Deutschland in seiner tiefen Erniedrigung" ("Germany in her deep Humiliation")
which attacked Napoleon and the behaviour of the French troops in Bavaria where they were
plundering, destroying and committing foul abuses upon the local population.
Palm unwittingly sent the package on to a book seller in Augsburg. Napoleon heard of the pamphlet
but, failing to discover the author, had Palm arrested. He was handed over to a military commission
at Braunau with orders to try him and execute him within 24 hours. Either Palm was denied the right
of defense or his defense did not show up on time, but at his hearing on August 22, it was proven
that he was not the author. Four other booksellers whose shops the parcel had travelled through had
also been found guilty, but were granted mercy at the request of Bavarian King Maximilian I.
At 11 o'clock, on August 25, 1806, Palm's prison door was opened. He presumed he was also going
to be set free as the others had been. Instead, he was notified that he would be executed at 2 p.m.
that afternoon. The townsfolk begged the French for mercy for Johann Palm, but at the appointed
hour, Palm was placed on a cart and taken outside the walls of the town, his wrists bound behind his
back. He was shot by a firing squad of six French soldiers.
Only one bullet hit him from the volley, and he dropped to the ground in pain. As he tried to get up,
another volley was fired. Again, he fell, grievously wounded, but not dead. Two of the soldiers then
ran forward and placed the muzzles of their muskets directly to his head to finished him off.
Though a devout Protestant, Palm was attended by a Catholic priest during his final hours and buried
in a Catholic churchyard. The murder of Johann Palm came to symbolize French cruelty and soon
outraged Germans across the land. A monument to Palm was erected in Braunau in 1866